Map Credits:

designed in 2016 by auut studio

This is a map of those lynchings and deadly mob violence which were directed against people of color — which represents a hugely disproportionate part of such violence. The evolution of this form of violence, which also was used to attack white suspects of certain crimes, is discussed on the page The rise of Lynching.

This map attempts to recreate the boundaries of the US interior as of 100 years ago, and the counties drawn on the land are the ones that existed in the year 1916. The borders of Native American nations, reservations and agencies (and the lands recently opened from them) are also shown from that decade.

The basemap of North America was designed in MapBox Studio Classic with data from Mapbox Places (other countries, US state borders, the labels of cities and states) and Mapbox Terrain (the water, waterways and mountains) that are © Mapbox and © OpenStreetMap. In order to go back in time, no information relating to OpenStreetMap roadways was used here.

The "pencil" texture over the ocean is provided courtesy of Mapbox and is the creative work of AJ Ashton.

Railroad tracks, circa 1910 – 1920, were digitized from historical maps in the public domain and added to the 1870 dataset downloaded from the Aurora Project (now called Railroads and the Making of Modern America) of the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, which is published "free and open-source" for educational and research use.

The boundaries of US counties circa 1916 are derived from the generalized version (0.001 degree tolerance) of the amazing resources produced by the Atlas of Historical County Boundaries of The Newberry Library. It is used under Creative Commons license CC-BY-NC-SA 2.5. The derivations created by auut studio and used on this site can be found on the downloads page.

The Indian Agencies and reservations circa 1910 were digitized by hand from historical maps in the public domain.

Some international boundaries were derived from Natural Earth — free vector and raster map data at

License to use maps:

This website utilized a number of resources in the Creative Commons to create the counties and railroads that visualize the historical United States around the year 1916, as well as to display the approximate location for each lynching on the map. These map images are therefore shared-alike by MonroeWorkToday under Creative Commons BY-NC-SA-4.0. You may re-mix this map or use static versions of it for your homework, school report, classroom or any other non-commercial use if you give credit and link to and are willing to share any new version you make in the same manner. Please note that if you wish to copy the interactive basemap powered by the Mapbox service (including rivers and State borders which appear) to another website, then you are responsible for creating an account with to abide by their own Terms of Service.

All other rights reserved © 2016 by auut studio. To obtain permission for any other use of the map and data, please contact the studio.

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